Tuesday, 6 July 2021

Owen Evans, MM (1888 – 1918) - Welsh poet – Bardic name Rhiwlas

With thanks to Clive Hughes of the Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum 

for finding Owen Evans for us and supplying additional information 

and a poem by Owen - with the help of Owen's Granddaughter

Owen Evans was born on 17th March 1888 at Llaneilian Anglesey, Wales. His parents were Owen Evans, a farmer, and his wife Elizabeth Evans, nee Owen.    Owen’s siblings were Hannah, William, Grace and Elizabeth.   The family lived on a farm in School Lane, Llaneilian, Anglesey.

Owen’s bardic name was that of his father’s farm, "Rhiwlas". He married Sarah Jane Williams in December 1909. Owen was the hwsmon or foreman at Tanrallt Farm at some point.  There came a junior farm servant or farm-boy named John Morris Jones.  

In those days it was common for farm workers to agree with their employer in May and October each year whether they would stay on for another 6-month period.  Those who weren't wanted, or who wanted to leave, went to the hiring fair to offer their services to other employers.  John Morris came to the end of his first hiring period, and had given satisfaction, so was offered a second 6-months.  As he started this, he bought himself a new pair of fustian trousers.  The new pants caught the eye of Owen Evans, who was eminently capable of framing rural rhymes, and he got the urge to compose the following:

Trowsus di-fai i'r brenin,

Ni bu am undyn amgian cerpyn,

Ond daw amser i wisgo fesul dipyn

A bydd John Morris yn dinoeth wedyn.


This translates poetically as:


Trousers fit for a king’s wearing,

Ne’er a man wore better clothing;

But time will tell upon them, leaving

John Morris with his bare arse showing.


Translated by Howard Huws of Bangor.

During the First World War, Owen enlisted as Private 37345 in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. When he was posted to the Western Front, he became 44132 in the 11th Battn. South Wales Borderers.  He was a stretcher-bearer and was awarded the Military Medal for gallantry at Pilckem Ridge, 3rd Battle of Ypres, July-August 1917, when he was wounded.  

Military Medal

Early in 1918, Owen’s unit was disbanded and he was transferred to the 10th Battn. South Wales Borderers. He was badly wounded in April 1918, probably in the 38th (Welsh) Division's attack at Bouzincourt Ridge on the Somme.  Owen was evacuated and died of his wounds on 30.4.18 in the base hospital in Rouen.  He is buried at St.Sever Cemetery Extension, Rouen, France, Grave reference P. XI. J. 18B. 

If you are visiting the St. Sever Cemetery in Rouen you might also like to visit the graves of Richard Molesworth Dennys (1884 – 1916), a Captain in the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment who was wounded on 12th July at Tara Redoubt on the Somme and died on 24th July 1916 in Rouen Hospital.  His Grave Reference is Officers A 4 7.

And Francis St. Vincent Morris (1896 – 1917), a Second Lieutenant in No. 3 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, attached to the Sherwood Foresters.  He crash landed at Vimy Ridge and died on the operating table at the military hospital in Rouen on 27th April 1917.  Grave Reference Officers B 6 5.

There are also seven women casualties of WW1 in that cemetery and seven more in the Extension Cemetery at Rouen. 

NOTE:  The Military Medal (MM) was a military decoration awarded to personnel of the British Army and other arms of the armed forces, and to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank, for bravery in battle on land. The award was established in 1916, with retrospective application to 1914, and was awarded to other ranks for "acts of gallantry and devotion to duty under fire". The award was discontinued in 1993 when it was replaced by the Military Cross, which was extended to all ranks, while other Commonwealth nations instituted their own award systems in the post war period.


Sources:  Find my Past, Free BMD

 https://www.cwgc.org/find-records/find-war-dead/casualty-details/517429/OWEN%20EVANS/ and

information supplied by Owen's Grandaughter via Clive Hughes. 



Monday, 5 July 2021

Geoffrey Howard (1889 – 1973) – British poet, writer and lawyer

Geoffrey was born on 27th November 1889.  Educated at Haileybury School, Hertfordshire before going on to study law at Oxford University, Geoffrey was commissioned into the Royal Fusiliers during the First World War. He became a Lieutenant and served on the Western Front.  After the war he qualified as a lawyer and became a Master of the Bench at the Inner Temple in London.   He died in 1973.

Geoffrey had poems published in five WW1 anthologies.

"Without Shedding of Blood . . ."

GOD gave us England from of old,

But we held light the gift He gave;

Our royal birthright we have sold,

And now the land we lost for gold

Only our blood can save.


Not till thousands have been slain

Shall the green wood be green again;

Not till men shall fall and bleed

Can brown ale taste like ale indeed.

Blood and blood must yet be shed

To make the roses red.


For minds made vile, and blind with greed,

For sins that spread from sire to son;

For loss of honour, loss of creed,

There yet remains one cure indeed —

And there remains but one.


Malvern men must die and kill

That wind may blow on Malvern Hill;

Devonshire blood must fall like dew

That Devon's bays may yet be blue;

London must spill out lives like wine

That London's lights may shine.


Lord, for the years of ease and vice,

For hearts unmanned and souls decayed,

Thou hast required a sacrifice—

A bitter and a bloody price—

And lo! the price is paid.


We have given all things that were ours,

So that our weeds might yet be flowers;

We have covered half the earth with gore

That our houses might be homes once more

The sword Thou hast demanded, Lord:

And, now, behold the sword!



Sources:

Find my Past

https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Soldier_poets,_songs_of_the_fighting_men/Geoffrey_Howard

Catherine W. Reilly “English Poetry of the First World War: A Bibliography” (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1978), p. 175.

Dominic Hibberd & John Onions, Editors "The Winter of the World: Poems of the First World War" (Constable & Robinson Ltd., London, 2007) p. 331.



Tuesday, 29 June 2021

Newman Levy (1888 - 1966) - American poet

With thanks to Dr Margaret Stetz for finding this poet for us

Newman (after his paternal Grandfather) was born in Manhatten, New York, USA on 30th November 1888.  His father, British-born Abraham Levy (1861 – 1920), was a distinguished New York lawyer. Newman’s siblings were Elizabeth and Helen.  Educated initially at a ‘Dame School’ run by two elderly German ladies and then at the Barnard School for Boys, Newman, began writing verse at an early age and learnt to play the piano.  He went on to study law at New York University and became a lawyer, poet, playwright and essayist.

During the First World War, Newman attended several military training camps, beginning with Lake Charles in Louisiana, then Plattsburg Camp in the Spring of 1916. When he left home for military service, his mother gave all of his civilian clothes to the Red Cross in a patriotic gesture.  

Having heard a talk given at a college reunion given by Guy Empey, who wrote a book entitled “Over the Top” about his WW1 service, Newman realised he would probably not be able to cope with trench life.   So he applied to become a cadet in the Army Air Corps, known at the time, as he points out in his book “My Double Life”, as the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps. (p. 89).  

In April 1917, Newman wrote a poem entitled “Mr Yankling Sees it Through”, inspired by H.G. Wells’ novel “Mr Britling sees it through”. Newman's poem was published and he received 50 Dollars for it.

Newman then learnt to fly aeroplanes at the US Army School of Military Aeronautics in Ithaca, New York. After buzzing his own airfield he was grounded and went to New York to try to enlist in April 1918.   However, Army enlistments were closed but the Navy was an option, so Newman was sent to yet another training camp - Pelham Bay Naval Training Station in Pelham Bay Park's Rodman's Neck in the Bronx.  Located near City Island, and Westchester county, it was operational from 1917 to 1919.  They published a magazine at Pelham – “The Broadside”.

After his discharge, Newman wrote some verse for “The Conning Tower” a newspaper column edited by American journalist Franklin Pierce Adams (1881 – 1960). The column began in the “New York Evening Mail” -1904 to 1913 – and was then called "Always in Good Humor” publishing reader contributions. In 1914, Franklin moved his column to the “New-York Tribune”, where it was retitled “The Conning Tower” and was considered to be "the pinnacle of verbal wit.  Later still the FPA, as he was known, took the column to “The World”.

Newman’s verse and some of his short fiction was published in "The New Yorker" and also collected in three books: “Opera Guyed”, “Theatre Guyed” and “Gay But Wistful Verses”.

A BALLAD OF THE GREAT WAR by Newman Levy

Oh, 'twas back in the fall of '17 that I went as a volunteer,
For the war was raging across the sea and the war was raging here.
And every lad had a khaki suit and a sweater and helmet knit,
And a shiny mirror made of tin and a khaki comfort kit.
And every lad had a luminous watch and a pair of Munson shoes,
And the Poems of Robert Service bound in the leather that's known as ooze.

Oh, some may call it a glorious war, but we soldiers knew ' twas hell,
We were stationed up at Ithaca at a place that they call Cornell ;
And they crammed us full of all sorts of things, and they drilled us from morn till night,
And we learned to master the Lewis gun and the Theory of Flight.
And as we lay at the close of day on our cots when our work was through.
Some guy from a bunk near mine would spout “ The Shooting of Dan  Megrew."


Yet they drilled us hard and they crammed us worse till our heads they were bursting full,
And they rode us too, and the worst of the crew was a Lieut. known as Franklin Bull.
No, I never harked to the cannon's roar nor the shriek of a shrapnel shell ,
And my only Huns were the waiter men at the Ithaca Hotel.
Yet I shudder to think of the horrors of war that I suffered at Cornell U.,
As I listened in bed through the silent night to " The Shooting of Dan Megrew."

A fellow named Charlie Hoffman used to recite it each night at mess ,
I remember Thanksgiving dinner, when he performed it with great success .
Dick Eustis and young John Meany, and - need I name any more ?
Why, Henry Churchill did it, and that warrior, Jack Hoare.

Now this cruel war has ended just as Milne once said it would,
And I'm through with the horrors of warfare ; I'm a veteran now for good.
And I'm done with the well-known army, henceforth and forevermore,
And they'll have to catch me first before I'll sign for another war.
For my soul is wearing a Service stripe for the suffering I've been through,
From the Poems of Robert Service and " The Shooting of Dan Megrew ."

Pp 63 and 64 “Gay but Wistful Verses” Alfred A. Knopf, New York:, 1925

Sources:

Newman Levy “My Double Life – Adventures in Law and Letters” (Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1958) via Archive - https://archive.org/details/lccn_58006645 – retrieved 29.6.2021 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_P._Adams

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelham_Bay_Naval_Training_Station

Photograph of Newman Levy by Eva Garshon Levy from http://www.stewarthendrickson.com/songs/NewmanLevy.html


Wednesday, 23 June 2021

“Mametz Wood” – a poem by Llewelyn Wyn Griffith CBE (1890 – 1977) – Welsh WW1 soldier poet who served with the Royal Welsh Fusiliers in WW1

With grateful thanks to Nick Lock of the Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum

for finding this poem for us 


During the First World War, Llewelyn served in the Royal Welsh* Fusiliers, initially as a Second Lieutenant and later as a Captain, with the 15th (1st London Welsh) Battalion, on the Western Front.  The poem, which has been found for us by Nick Lock of the Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum in Caernarvon Castle, Caernarvon, Wales, is from Llewelyn’s WW1 Poetry Colliection “The Barren Tree”, published by . Penmark, Cardiff in 1945 - pp. 18 - 21.

Mametz Wood

About four thousand men from the Welsh Division were killed or wounded in the attack on Mametz Wood that took place in July 1916, during the First Battle of the Somme.  The wood still stands today and there is a Memorial to the 38th Division nearby. 

Mametz Wood was large, overgrown and defended by experienced German troops.   The first attack, on 7th  July 1916, failed to reach the wood. Welsh soldiers, who were expected to make a frontal assault in daylight on German positions, were machine-gunned as they moved across open fields.

Mametz is a village in the Somme Departement in France on the D 64 road, about 20 miles (32 km) north-east of Amiens and 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Albert. Fricourt is to the west, Contalmaison to the north, Montauban to the north-east and Carnoy and Maricourt to the south-east. Mametz Wood is 1,000 yards (910 m.) to the north west.

Llewelyn’s brother Watcyn Emil Owen Griffith was killed at Mametz Wood in July 1916.  Watcyn was born in 1897.  He joined the Royal Welsh Fusiliers like his elder brother and served on the Western Front with the 17th Battalion.  He was killed on 10th July 1916 and has no known grave.  Watcyn is remembered on the Thiepval Memorial in France, Pier and Face 4A.  

Llewelyn felt responsible for his brother’s death.  Here is an extract from his book “Up to Mametz: “It was nearing dusk when Taylor came up to me. 'I want to have a word with you,' he said, drawing me away. 'I’ve got bad news for you…' 'What’s happened to my young brother… is he hit?' 'You know the last message you sent out to try and stop the barrage… well, he was one of the runners that took it. He hasn’t come back… He got his message through all right, and on his way back through the barrage he was hit. His mate was wounded by the shell that killed your brother ... he told another runner to tell us.' 





'My God ... he's lying out there now, Taylor!…' 'No, old man ... he’s gone.' ... So I had sent him to his death, bearing a message from my own hand, in an endeavour to save other men’s brothers; three thoughts that followed one another in unending sequence, a wheel revolving within my brain … “. 







































“Mametz Wood, commemorating the Welsh during the Battle of the Somme July 1916” is a painting by Welsh artist Christopher David Williams RBA (7 January 1873 – 1934).



The Red Dragon Memorial to the Welsh at Mametz Wood 

The memorial, designed by Welsh sculptor David Petersen, was unveiled in 1987. 

A Welsh red dragon on top of a three-metre stone plinth faces the wood, tearing at barbed wire. It was commissioned by the South Wales Branch of the Western Front Association following a public funding-raising appeal.

The memorial is located near the site of the engagement in northern France. It can be reached from the village of Mametz on the D64 road.

The Welsh Dragon (Welsh: Y Ddraig Goch, meaning the red dragon, pronounced [ə ˈðraiɡ ˈɡoːχ]), is a heraldic symbol featured on the national flag of Wales.



*NOTE: The Royal Welch Fusiliers (In Welsh: Ffiwsilwyr Brenhinol Cymreig) - a line infantry regiment of the British Army and part of the Prince of Wales' Division - was founded in 1689 shortly after the Glorious Revolution. In 1702, it was designated a fusilier regiment and became The Welch Regiment of Fusiliers; the prefix "Royal" was added in 1713, then confirmed in 1714 when George I named it The Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment of Welsh Fusiliers. After the 1751 reforms that standardised the naming and numbering of regiments, it became the 23rd Foot (Royal Welsh Fuzileers).  After the 1881 Childers Reforms, Ithe Regiment’s official title was The Royal Welsh Fusiliers, but "Welch" continued to be used informally until restored in 1920 by Army Order No.56.

The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum is in Caernarfon Castle in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, North Wales. To find out more and book a visit please visit their website https://www.rwfmuseum.org.uk/index.php

Sources:
“The Barren Tree”, published by Penmark, Cardiff in 1945 
Find my Past 
https://www.cwgc.org/find-records/find-war-dead/casualty-details/787687/WATCYN%20EMIL%20OWEN%20GRIFFITH/


Tuesday, 22 June 2021

Llewelyn Wyn Griffith CBE (1890 – 1977) – Welsh Civil Servant, writer, translator and poet

With grateful thanks to Nick Lock of the Royal Welch Fusiliers

Museum for his help in finding information and poems by Llewelyn Wyn Gfiffin

Llewelyn was born on 30th August 1890 in Llandrillo yn Rhos, Clwyd, Wales.  His parents were John Griffith, a secondary school teacher, and his wife Dorothy Griffith, nee Jones.  Llewelyn had the following siblings: Alun E. Griffith, b. 1893, Dorothy M. Griffith, b. 1895 and Watcyn Emil Owen Griffith, b. 1897.

During the First World War, Llewelyn served in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers*, initially as a Second Lieutenant and later as a Captain, with the 15th (1st London Welsh) Battalion.  In early 1915, he married Winifred E. Frimston in Toxteth Park, Liverpool.  

Llewelyn's youngest sibling - Watcyn - joined the Royal Welsh Fusiliers as a Private and served on the Western Front with the 17th Battalion.  He was killed on 10th July 1916 and is remembered on the Thiepval Memorial in France, Pier and Face 4A.  

After the war Llewelyn worked for the Inland Revnue as a tax inspector. He became a well-known broadcaster – he was a founding member of the Round Britain Quiz team – and when he retired, he became vice chairman of the Arts Council of Great Britain.  Llewelyn was appointed CBE in the 1961 Birthday Honours. He died on 27th September 1977.

Llewelyn’s WW1 poetry Collection “The Barren Tree” was published by . Penmark, Cardiff in 1945 and he had poems published in three WW1 anthologies.

He also wrote “Up to Mametz” (1930), “Spring of Youth” (1935), “The Wooden Spoon” (1937),  “The Way Lies West” (1945), “The Welsh” (1950) and “The Adventures of Pryderi” (1962).

“If there be Time” by Llewelyn Wyn Griffith

If there be time enough before the slaughter

let us consider our heritage

of wisdom, remembering the coil of laughter

girdled our youth, wine of bright vintage

carrying short sorrows into oblivion;

some talk of love in smooth meadows

where dusk brings quiet and night a vision

of daylight joys freed from their shadows.

Above all, wisdom:  for years are shrinking

into a huddle of days and the world a parish

where neighbours bolt their doors and lights are dimming.

Soon there will be nothing left for us to cherish

but the grave words of the last statesmen.

before the battle starts and the air is darkened:

fast fall the night upon the frightened children

and on the wombs where once they quickened.

What towered land of amn’s endeavour

will first be desert, with all our learning

a burnt page trodden in the dust of error?

Farewell to wisdom and to all remembring.

From: "Poetry 1900 - 2000:  One hundred poets from Wales", Edited by Meic Stephens (parthian, Cardigan, Wales, 2007, reprinted 2016)  p. 19 

*NOTE: The Royal Welch Fusiliers (In Welsh: Ffiwsilwyr Brenhinol Cymreig) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army and part of the Prince of Wales' Division, founded in 1689 shortly after the Glorious Revolution. In 1702, it was designated a fusilier regiment and became The Welch Regiment of Fusiliers; the prefix "Royal" was added in 1713, then confirmed in 1714 when George I named it The Prince of Wales's Own Royal Regiment of Welsh Fusiliers. After the 1751 reforms that standardised the naming and numbering of regiments, it became the 23rd Foot (Royal Welsh Fuzileers).   *After the 1881 Childers Reforms, Ithe Regiment’s official title was The Royal Welsh Fusiliers, but "Welch" continued to be used informally until restored in 1920 by Army Order No.56.

Nick Lock tells us "Llewelyn Wyn Griffith served in the 15th (1st London Welsh) Battalion, RWF. Quite a literary Battalion with David Jones (Poet and Artist) and Hedd Wyn, as well as a couple of other writers."

Sources:

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ppf0CQAAQBAJ&pg=PA18&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false     pp 19 – 20

Find my Past, Free BMD, National Archives,

Catherine W. Reilly, “English Poetry of the First World War: A Bibliography” (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1978) p. 150

https://www.porthcawlandthegreatwar.com/llewelyn-wyn-griffith-7.html

"Poetry 1900 - 2000:  One hundred poets from Wales", Edited by Meic Stephens (parthian, Cardigan, Wales, 2007, reprinted 2016)

The Royal Welch Fusiliers Museum is in Canaervon Castle, Canaervon, Wales. To find out more and book a visit please visit their website https://www.rwfmuseum.org.uk/index.php


Wednesday, 16 June 2021

William Kersley Holmes - pen name ‘W. K. H.’ - (1882 - 1966) – WW1 soldier poet, writer and artist

With thanks to Dr Connie Ruzich for reminding me that I had not yet researched William 


 

William Kersley Holmes was born in Kings Norton, Worcestershire UK in 1882 – the birth being registered in the third quarter of the year – i.e. July/August/September.   His parents were William Charles Holmes, and his wife, Amy Eleanor Holmes, nee Kersley. William had the following siblings: Geoffrey M.K. Holmes, b. 1878, Robert K. Holmes, b. 1880, and Olive K. Holmes, b. 1881.   

The family moved to Scotland when William was little and went to live in Dollar, Clackmannshire.  Educated at Dollar Academy, William worked in a bank until the First World War began, when he joined the Lothian and Borders Horse Regiment as a Lance-Corporal. He saw action in France and Belgium, before being transferred to the Royal Field Artillery and promoted to the rank of Second  Lieutenant.  

He joined General Dunsterville's Dunsteforce Expedition to Russia in 1917.  Throughout the war, William kept a diary in which he sketched all aspects of army life. Descriptions of life in the trenches also appeared in his poetry.  Williams’s WW1 collections were:

“Ballads of Field and Billet” (Gardner, Paisley, 1915) – which was published in four editions - “More Ballads of Field and Billet, and other verses” (Gardner, Paisley, 1915),  “In the open: verses! (Gowans & Gray, 1925), and “The life I love: verses” (Blackie, 1958).  He also had poems published in four WW1 Poetry Anthologies.

After the war his writing led him into journalism and then publishing – he worked as editor for children’s books with Blackie & Son, creating much of the content of the Blackie’s boys’ and girls’ annuals and contributing many children’s stories to BBC radio. Hundreds of pieces of light verse signed ‘W. K. H.’ were published in Scottish magazines and newspapers, and in national publications such as “Punch”, and “Country Life”.  William’s hobby was hill-walking, which inspired “Tramping Scottish Hills”, published in 1947 and “On Scottish Hills”, published in 1962, both illustrated with photographs he took.

William died on 7th August 1966 in Alloa, Scotland after a brief illness and was buried in Dollar Churchyard.

“The Neutral” by William Kersley Holmes


A haze of dust floats up from marching feet

Along our homely roads;

Great waggons clatter down the sleepy street

With unfamiliar loads.


The little town, so quiet as it stirred

In languorous morning haze,

By ringing bugles, lately still unheard,

Now regulates its days.


In quiet meadows towns of tents arise,

Where peace was wont to brood;

The mutterings of world-wide war surprise

The heart of solitude.


War, like a restless fever, haunts the air,

Changing the world we knew;

The men we are forget the men we were

In all we think and do.


And yet, impartial, patient, as of yore,

Life wakes the hidden seed;

Of who will reap or who will reap no more

Wise nature takes no heed.

from “More ballads of field and billet, and other verses” (Paisley : Alexander Gardner, 1915)

Sources:  Catherine W. Reilly “English Poetry of the First World War: A Bibliography” (St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1978) pp. 1,4, 5,24 and 172;

Affleck Grey “The Big Grey Man of Ben Macdhui” (Birlin, Ltd. Edinburgh, 2012)

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=y6e8BQAAQBAJ&pg=PT84&lpg=PT84&dq=william+kersley+holmes+writer&source=bl&ots=u3ygrHxQcJ&sig=ACfU3U0aPTN6CiT3Gxyc6udZA6YBdxAGPw&hl=fr&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiIhovmuJzxAhUMiFwKHQZ1CH4Q6AEwCXoECAYQAw#v=onepage&q=william%20kersley%20holmes%20writer&f=false

Find my Past, Free BMD  and

https://www.scottishpoetrylibrary.org.uk/poem/neutral/

For more information about William, and an appreciation of one of his poems, please see Dr. Connie Ruzich’s website Behind Their Lines https://behindtheirlines.blogspot.com/2017/08/eating-chip-potatoes.html

Connie has also compiled a commemorative WW1 poetry anthology  -  “International Poetry of the First World War: An Anthology of Lost Voices” 


Saturday, 12 June 2021

Book Review: “Welsh Poetry Music and Metres” by Howard Huws (Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, Llanrwst, Wales, 2017)


As the title implies, this wonderful book explains the origins, history and intricacies of the various forms of Welsh poetry.   There is a chapter on Welsh poets of the First World War, as well as the Aftermath.   To my mind, Welsh poetry is a very important part of the poetic cultural heritage of the British Isles.

This book is fantastic – it is a must read for all poetry lovers.

For an example of the poetry form Cywydd please see the post about Dafydd Ellis of 2 June 2021 http://forgottenpoetsofww1.blogspot.com/2021/06/dafydd-david-dai-ellis-1893-1918-welsh.html


Lucy London, June 2021